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SimpleLifeBlackHillsAutumn2014 AutumnintheHillsFrontCoverScottieBruchTopLeftMichelleGrosekTopRightBreakingDawnPhotographyMiddleRightBreakingDawnPhotographyBottomRightMichelleGrosekBackCoverScottieBruch Iwouldrathersitonapumpkinandhaveitalltomyselfthanbecrowdedonavelvetcushion.HenryDavidThoreau ContentsWhatisWorkAnywayBrittanyPruessWhenitcomestothetopicofworkGodprovidesalltheanswersweneedtoknow.FortheVoicelessKiahCrowleyWeneedtoaskquestionsaboutwhereourfoodcomesfromtoensurethefutureofourpollinators.SolarHotWaterSystemsExplainedFrankDiCesareInstallasolardomestichotwatersystemonyourhomeandmakeeveryshowerasunshower.Farmer-ledTrainingProgramJump-StartsNewFarmBeginningsClassoffersscholarshipsandspecialveteranfunding.PartIIFearandResolveSaraRoseWhereweleftoffinmystoryIhadbeenjustdiagnosedwithcanceranditwasChristmas. ContentsAModernGalsGuidetoMilkingElizaBlueOrthelazygirlstipsforahomedairy.Orhowtokeepamilkcowevenifyouhavenoideawhatyouaredoing.AutumnalPaletteCarolBrookensApoem.AbundanceonthePrairieRobynGoddardAswemoveintothefallseasonwecontinuetobethankfulfortheflourishingsummerpasturesandsuccessfulcropgrowth.HiddenConsiderationsJohnDaleGettingfoodfromthegrocerystoreseemssimplebutstopforamomenttoconsidersomeotherfoodsystemcomplexities.ForEverythingthereisaSeasonMichelleGrosekSeasonalfoodsofferanaturalculinarydiversitythatcanbetakenadvantageofevenintheBlackHills.GettingThroughtheSeasonoftheColdandFluUrsulaWardFightillnessthisseasonwiththehelpofMotherNature. MichelleGrosek NotefromtheEditorsItsAutumnScottieandIenjoythistimeofyear.Thedaytimeairstartstocooleveningsarecrispnighttimeskiesareclearandstar-filleddaysbecomenoticeablyshorterandourfoodcravingschangeasdoourchoicesforlocalfoods.IrecentlywasaskedtositataboothforanhourataTasteofSouthDakotaevent.TheboothIwaswomanningwashandingoutinformationaboutanewonlinelocalfoodsco-opintheBlackHillssdlocalfood.org.BeingquitealoveroffoodingeneralIenjoyedbeingataneventwhereIcouldtalktopeoplespecificallyaboutlocalfoodsandhavetheopportunitytoperusetheotherboothsthatwereservingupsamplesofdisheslikebisonjerkypheasantstewandsageicecream.YumIgethungryagainjustthinkingaboutit.MakingthetransitionfromcommongrocerystoreproductstolocalfoodscanbechallengingbutitisSOdo-ablenowIgetverypassionateaboutthistopicbecauseweliveinsuchanamazingcorneroftheworldandpeoplearegrowingandmakingsomefabulouslynutritioustastybeautifullocalfoodshere.Buyingandsupportinglocalisamindset.Firstdecidethatyouandyourfamilydeservethehealthiestandtastiestfoodavailableandthenstartlookingforit.Askthequestions.Persevere.Yourchaingrocerystoremaynotknowwhereyoucangetlocalproduceormeatsbutmorethanlikelyyourlocalhealthfoodstorefoodco-opfarmersmarketvendorsorjustthefarmerdowntheroadcanhelpyouout.Usfoodproducerswebandtogether.Andgiventheopportunitytotalkaboutfoodwetakeitinaninstant.ScottiehasastrongcircleofyogafriendsandImaynotknowalotofyogaterminology butIknowthatifIsayIfoundagreatlittlemarketthatcarrieslocalfoodproductsIhavetheirfullattention.Beinghealthyisntjustaboutyourfitnessroutineitstartswiththebasicsofeatingwell.Soeventhoughweareenteringthenon-gardeningseasontherearestillSOmanyoptionsforobtaininglocalfoodsofallvarieties.Youcancertainlycontactmeifyouneedagoodsourcemichelle.grosekgmail.comorScottiescottie.bruchgmail.comforjustaboutanythinglocally.Rememberthetypicalfreshfooditeminthelocalgroceristransportedapproximately1500milesfromsourcetoyourstore.Youdeservesomethingfresherandmorenutritiousthanthatandwecanhelpyoufindit.YoursinjoyfuleatingMichelleScottie BreakingDawnPhotography ContributingtoBlackHillsSimpleLifeMagazineArticleRequirementsThemagazineisreallynotaboutsimpleasmeaningeasy.Ratheritsallaboutgettingbacktoourrootslearningtodomorewithlessgettingourhandsdirtyhavingarelationshipwithourfoodenjoyingourownbackyardusingourlocalresourceshavingabetterawarenessofourphysicalmentalandemotionalhealthbeinginvolvedinthelocalartsmusicsceneandraisingourchildrentobeknowledgeablehard-workingandinformedcitizensofourcommunity.ItsaboutlivinglifetothefullestsomethingwefeelisprettysimpletodointheBlackHills.SubmittinganArticleIfyouwouldliketocontributetotheWinterIssueofBlackHillsSimpleLifepleasesendyourarticletoscottie.bruchgmail.comormichelle.grosekgmail.com.Ifwechoosetorunyourarticleyouwillbenotifiedviaemail.Atthistimewearenotofferingcompensationforarticles.Articlesshouldbebetween300-900wordsandshouldcomplywiththeideaofsimplelivingintheBlackHillsintheareasofGardeningHobbiesCookingFamilyOutdoorLivingArtsMusicCraftsGreenLivingandMind-BodyHealthandWellness.DeadlineforSubmissionsThedeadlineforsubmissionsfortheWinterIssueofBlackHillsSimpleLifeisDecember15.TheWinterIssuewillbepublishedon-lineinJanuary2015.PleasesubmityourarticleabriefbioandapictureofyourselftooneoftheemailaddressesabovebyDecember15.PodcastOptionWhensubmittingyourarticlepleaseindicatewhetherornotyouwouldbecomfortableprovidingashortinterviewandsomeextrainformationaboutthecontentofyourarticleforapodcastthatwillbemadeavailableaspartoftheon-linepublication. AdvertisinginBlackHillsSimpleLifeMagazineBlackHillsSimpleLifeisanewmagazinethatwillbepublishedon-linequarterly.Wehavepurposefullychosentopublishon-lineratherthandistributefullversionsasameanstobeingmoreearth-friendly.Themagazineisreallynotaboutsimpleasmeaningeasy.Ratheritsallaboutgettingbacktoourrootslearningtodomorewithlessgettingourhandsdirtyhavingarelationshipwithourfoodenjoyingourownbackyardusingourlocalresourceshavingabetterawarenessofourphysicalmentalandemotionalhealthbeinginvolvedinthelocalartsmusicsceneandraisingourchildrentobeknowledgeablehard-workingandinformedcitizensofourcommunity.ItsaboutlivinglifetothefullestsomethingwefeelisprettysimpletodointheBlackHills.ForyouradvertisingdollaryougetAnadintheon-linepublicationofBlackHillsSimpleLifewithalinkdirectlytoyourwebsite.Anadoryourlogointheteaserpublicationthatwillbedistributedtolocalcoffeeshopsstoreshealthandwellnessfacilitiesetc.AnadoryourlogoontheBlackHillsSimpleLifewebsite.AdvertisingontheBlackHillsSimpleLifeFacebookpagepromotingyourlatestdealnewestmenuitemetc.PromosonthepodcastsoffeaturedarticlesfromBlackHillsSimpleLife.PricingAdSizePrice16Page7514Page10013Page15012Page200FullPage350EventListingFreeAdsdesignedbyBlackHillsSimpleLifeare50for2proofs70perhourforadditionaledits.AdvertisingArtworkDeadlinesIssueReserveSpaceArtworkPublicationWinterDecember1December15January1SpringMarch1March15April1SummerJune1June15July1FallSeptember1September15October1BlackHillsSimpleLifeonlyacceptsadvertisersandeventlistingsthatcomplywiththeobjectiveofthemagazine.TheeditorsatBlackHillsSimpleLifewillmakethefinaldecisiononadvertisementsandreservetherighttorefuseanyadvertisementsandoreventsthatdonotmeetthestandardsofthemagazine. WhatIsWorkAnywayWhenitcomestothetopicofworkGodprovidesalltheanswersweneedtoknow.ByBrittanyPruessLittleBitsAsthefallseasonbeginsschedulesaremadeandpeoplegetbacktotheirwork-weekaparticularquestionkeepspoppingupinmyhead.WhatisworkanywayAsabaristaanartistahealthadvocateandawomanofChristthisladyknowsthereisabalancetowork.Therearedayswhenyouareextremelybusywithhardlyanytime tothinkandthentherearetimeswhenyoucanbreatheineverythingbeautifularoundyou.HoweveratwhatpointisoneoverworkingorunderworkingIsurroundmyselfwithavarietyofpeopleonanygivenday.WiththisvarietyIseeawiderangeofviewpointswhenitcomestothetopicofWORK.Somesaytheyhatehavinga9to5othersloveit.Somebelieveworking20hoursaweekistoomuchwhileafewmorethink60isnotenough.Afewbelieveworkisdoingallthethingsyoudonotliketodoandthenthereareothersthatthinkyoushouldnotworkunlessyoulovewhatyoudo.WhereisthehappybalanceWhatisconsideredhealthyforyourselfbutatthesametimehelpfultothosearoundyouandhonoringGodintheprocessThesearethequestionsIfindmyselfaskingaspeoplearegettingmoreandmorewrappedupintheirowndefinitionofwork.SoasIdowithallofthequestionsIhaveItookittoGod.ThisiswhatIfoundForevenwhenwewerewithyouwegaveyouthisruleTheonewhoisunwillingtoworkshallnoteat.Wehearthatsomeamongyouareidleanddisruptive.Theyarenotbusytheyarebusybodies.SuchpeoplewecommandandurgeintheLordJesusChristtosettledownandearnthefoodtheyeat.2Thessalonians310-12.SumsitupquitenicelyIhavetosay.Wearenotputonthisearthtosimplydowhatwefindpleasurein.Atthesametimewearenotsupposedtobecomeslavestoourwork.Weshouldworkenoughtosupplyuswithournecessitiesbutwearenottobeoverworked.Totakethisastep furtherIbelievetherearetwokindsofpeoplefoundatoppositeendsoftheUnhealthyWorkspectrum.Therearethosewhocomplainabouttheworktheyshouldbedoingasaresponsibleadultandthentherearethosewhoconstantlyworkbutdontnecessarilygetanythingworthwhileaccomplished.Thisishithomebythewordbusybodiesin2Thessalonians.CouldthiswordhavebeenchosenanybetterBusybodyInthepastIfoundmyselfintheebb-and-flowofbusybodywork.HoweverinthelastfewyearsIamgettingreallygoodatsayingnoandremovingthosethingsfrommylifethatarenolongerhelpfulhealthyorproductive.EverysooftenIfinditistimeonceagainformetofiltersortandfocusonthosethingsthatprovetobeproductiveandglorifyingGodsname.ButwhataboutthosewhoconstantlycomplainaboutworkThosepeoplewhohaveforgottenhardlaborisactuallyo.k.andwarrantedIsimplyreferthemto2Thessalonians.GodwantsustoworkHewantsustoprovideforthosearoundusandHewantsustobehappydoingit.WedonotdoitonlyforourselvesbuttoglorifyGod.WhatanopportunitywehaveIfyouarenotfindingenjoymentinyourworkIwouldencourageyoutoaskyourselfwhy.IfitisbecauseyouaregenuinelytoobusytrytothinkofGodwantsustoworkHewantsustoprovideforthosearoundusandHewantsustobehappydoingit.WedonotdoitonlyforourselvesbuttoglorifyGod.Whatanopportunitywehave waysyoucanrefocusyourenergy.IfitisbecauseyouarenotusingwhattalentsyouhavebutratheryouaretryingtoforceyourselftodothosethingsgiftedtosomeoneelserelocateorbetteryetcreateajobthatfitsthetalentsGodgavetoYOU.Butifyouarenotenjoyingyourworksimplybecauseyoudonotwanttoworkmaybeitistimeforaninnerchange.SowhatisworkWorkisdoingsomethingproductivewiththetalentsGodgaveyouinordertoprovideforyourselfyourcommunityandyourfamilywhileglorifyingGodintheprocessSoletsfindthosejobswithsubstancepeopleYouwillbehealthierandhappierthatyoudidBrittanyPruessobtainedaB.A.inPsychologyfromSDSUin2011.AsthebusinessownerofLittleBitswww.littlebitsbybrit.comsheisapassionateadvocateoffindingbalanceandinterconnectednessinartmentalandphysicalhealthexpressionthroughmovementandChristianity. FortheVoicelessWeneedtoaskquestionsaboutwhereourfoodcomesfromtoensurethefutureofourpollinators.ByKiahCrowleySunriseHivesHowoftendoyousitbackandthinkaboutallthewildorganismsthatmakethisworldgoroundTheecosystemprovidesmanyfreeservicesthatallowushumanstomaintainhealthylives.Farmingdependsuponwormswoodlicemillipedesandaplethoraofcreaturesthathelpsoilformationpreventsoilerosionregulatewaterflowandthelistgoesonandon.Ourecosystemprovidesbirdstoeatinsectsfliesandbeetlestobreakdownanimaldungandbeesandotherpollinatorstopollinatethemanycropsweeat.Itseasytoseethatwithouthumansthisworldwouldbejustfine.Formillionsofyearsbeesfliesbutterfliesandevenbatshaveprovidedfreepollinationforourcrops.Around75ofallcropsrequirepollination.Withoutbeesthehumandietwouldbeextremelypoor.Wewouldhavetosurviveoffofwind-pollinatedcropssuchaswheatbarleyandcorn.Itsveryhardtoimagineaworldwithoutraspberriesapplesstrawberriespeasbeansmelonstomatoesblueberriessquashcucumbersalmondskiwis celerybroccolicoffeejusttonameafew.NaturesnaturalprocessforpollinationisamazingOnehoneybeecanpollinateupto5000flowersadayPollinationstartsintheformofpollenwhichisdust-sizedgrainsformedinthemalepartofflowerknownastheanther.Asthebeemovesfromflowertoflowertheytakealittlepollenandleavealittlepollen.Pollinationiscompletewhenpollenistransferredtothestigmathefemalepartoftheflower.Pollinationallowstheplanttoproduceseedslateron.Honeybeescollectpollenfortheirhive.Pollencontainsproteinvitaminsfatandisessentialforbeestoraisetheiryoung.BeepollenisconsideredoneofnaturesmostcompletefoodsasitcontainsnearlyallnutrientsrequiredtosustainlifeexceptforvitaminD.Whenhoneybeesareforagingtheirbodiesbecomedustedwithpollen.Honeybeescoattheirtongueinnectarandwipeitovertheirforelegs.Withacomplexgroomingtechniquebeesgatherallthepollenthathascollectedontheirbodiesusingtheirlegswithabrushingmovement.ThejointoftheHelpMypollenbasketsaresoheavy beeskneesactsasapollenpressandhelpsmovethepollenintothepollenbasketscientificallyknownasthecorbicula.Pollenwillcontinuetocollectbeesusetheirmiddlelegstohelpmoldandpackituntiltheyhavereachedafullload.EachpollenpelletcontainsovertwomillionflowerpollengrainsWhentheforagingbeesarrivebacktotheirhivetheyusuallypreformabriefgroomingperiodbeforelookingforacelltodepositthepollen.Findingtheperfectcellcansometimestakeawhile.Someforagerswillinspectseveralcellsbeforechoosingone.Usuallyacellischosenclosetothebroodbabybees.Thebeeuseshermiddlelegstoprythepollenoutofherbasketandallowittodropintothecell.Beforereturningtopollencollectionthebeewillcontinuetocleanherselfofanypollenshemayhavemissed.AhousebeeisreadyandwaitingforthepollenEachollenelletcontainsovertwomillionflowerollenrains drop.Oncetheforagingbeehasleftthecellanotherbeewilluseherheadmandiblesandforelegstopackthepollenintothebaseofthecell.Afterbeingtightlypackedthebeeswilladdenzymesandalayerofhoneywhichpreservesthenutritionalvalueofthepollenforanextendedperiodoftime.Itiscrucialbeeshaveapuresourceofpollen.TheuseofGMOsgeneticallymanufacturedorganismsisalsobecomingahugeproblemforpollinators.Theseseedshavebeencreatedtonotreproduceasthepollentheyproduceissterile.Beesgatherthispollennotknowingitissterile.Evidenceshowsthehiveslowlybecomesmalnourishedandeventuallydiesfromlackofnutrients.Farmersnowrelyontheselargebiotechcompaniesfortheirseedsthefollowingyearinsteadofwhatnaturehasalwaysfreelyprovided--seedsaving.Thebiotechcompanieshaveevencreatedtraitorseedsthatwillnotdevelopunlesstheplantissprayedwiththeappropriatechemicaltheyhavealsocreated.DoesthisnotallsoundbizarreWheninsecticidesarealsobeingsprayedfrequentlyvitalpollinatorswillnotandcannotsurvive.AnexampleofthiscanbeseenintheappleandpearorchardsinsouthwestChina.Farmershavetohand-pollinateduetoanexcessiveuseofpesticidesandlackofnaturalhabitatthathavekilledoffallpollinatorsinthearea.ThesefarmersOurchildrendependuponustopreserveandteachthemhowtocreateahealthyenvironmenttolivein.Wemustteachrespectforthecountlessorganismsandplantsthatsharethisworldwithus. mustfirstgatherthepollenfromtheflowersandthenpainteachflowerindividuallywiththepollentheycollected.Thismayworkforsomecropsbuttherearenotenoughhumansintheworldtopollinateallcropsbyhand.Pollinationiscrucialforthelivesofpollinatorsandourselves.Weneedtomakesurewedontmakethesamemistakeswehavemadeinthepastandavoidcompletelywipingoutpollinatorsalltogether.Sustainabilityisnotpossiblewithmono-cropsorbigagriculture.Simplesolutionssuchasplantingstripsofwildflowersbetweencropsandleavingareasofnaturalvegetationhaveshowntoincreasepopulationsofnaturalpredatorswhichdecreasedtheuseofneededpesticidesprays.Wecanhelppollinatorsbybuyingandsupportinglocalorganicfarming.ThemoresmallfarmersthebetterBuyorganicopen-pollinatingvarietiesofseedstheonlythingtheyrequireispollinators.DontbeafraidtoaskquestionsMakesureyouarebuyingnon-GMOandmakesurethegrowerisnttreatingtheplantswithneonicotinoids.IfthegrowercannotansweriftheplantshavebeentreatedyourbestbetistofindanothersourcetobuyyourTakingabreakandgroomingbeforeenteringthehivewithfullpollenbaskets. plants.Recognizethatwerelyonmanyorganismsthathelpusblindlyandwithoutthemwewouldnotexist.Ourchildrendependuponustopreserveandteachthemhowtocreateahealthyenvironmenttolivein.Wemustteachrespectforthecountlessorganismsandplantsthatsharethisworldwithus.MichelleGrosek KateFjelstad SOLARHOTWATERSYSTEMSEXPLAINEDInstallasolardomestichotwatersystemonyourhomeandmakeeveryshowerasunshower.ByFrancisDiCesareOneofthemostcost-effectivesystemstoinstalltomakeyourhomeasolarhomeisaSolarDomesticHotWaterSystemanenergy-savingmeansforlettingthesunheatyourhomeshotwater.Whenyouhearofasolarhomesolarelectricisusuallywhatcomestomind.Butthesuncanheatyourhotwateryourhomeandevenyourout-buildingsifdesired.Thefunofusingsolar-heatedhotwateriswhenyouturnontheshowerdishwasherorclotheswasherandyouwillsmileknowingyouarenotpayingtheutilitycompany.Andobviouslytheprofitcomesforthesamereason.InaSolarDomesticHotWaterSystemthesunheatsafluidinyoursolarthermalpanelsasopposedtosolarelectricpanels.Thefluidisthencirculatedintoaheatexchangesystemthatheatsthewaterinyourhotwatertank.Thesolar-heatedfluidistypicallyapropylene-glycolanti-freezeandtheclosedsolarloopisoftenreferredtoastheglycolloop.Theheatedwaterisstoreduntilahot watertapisturnedon.Thesystemworksaswellasaconventionalpotablehotwatertankwiththeaddedbenefitofreducedfuelbillsandacleanerenvironment.Tothisendthereareseveraldifferentdesignsonthemarketbutthemostcommononeisaclosed-loopsystemfigure1. Thebasicclosed-loopsystemskeycomponentsarethesolarpanelstheheatexchangerwhichcanbeanexternaltankorinternaltankexchangerthecontrolsandpumpandtheplumbingandwiring.Anyonewithbasicplumbingandelectricalskillscaninstallasolarhotwatersystem.Knowinghowasystemworkswillhelpyouinstallthemostefficientsystemforyourhome.Aworkingknowledgeofthekeycomponentthesolarthermalpanelisworthyofelaborationhere.Thermalpanelsarebasicallyinsulatedboxeswithaglassfrontfigure2.Insidetheboxistheabsorberplateconsistingofcopperrisertubesimbeddedina coppersheet.Therisertubesareweldedtoacoppersupplyandreturnmanifoldpipes.Thecoppersheetiscoatedwithaselectivesurfacetomoreefficientlyconverttheultra-violetradiationUVRfromthesunintoheat.TheglasscoverprotectstheabsorbersurfacefromtheelementsandallowstheUVRtoreadilyentertheboxbutrestrictsthegeneratedheatfromleavingthusallowingittobeeffectivelyabsorbedbytheglycolsolarfluidasitispumpedthroughtherisertubes.BythewayUVRiswhatcausesyourskintogetsunburned.Thermalsolarpanelsaredesignedtowithstandtheweatheringbytheelementsandthehighertemperaturesgeneratedwithinthepanelitself.Undertherightconditionsthesetemperaturescanexceed200oFbuttypicallytheyruninthe120oto160orange.Theouterframeoftheboxisconstructedofmetalsuchasaluminumgalvanizedsteeloranalloytoprovidelonglifeandprotectiontotheinterior.Thetopofthepanelisglassandshouldbetemperedtowithstandhail.Theglassshouldalsobeoflow-leadcontenttoreducereflectionandpermitmoreUVRtostriketheabsorber.Insulatingthebackandsidesofthepanelboxreducesheatlossfromtheabsorbersheet.Thisinsulationshouldbeofastabilizedmaterialsoasnottoexpandandcontractandhavelow-bindercontentsothatout-gassingwillnotoccurathightemperaturesandfogtheinsideoftheglass.Oneofthemostcost-effectivesystemstoinstalltomakeyourhomeasolarhomeisaSolarDomesticHotWaterSystemanenergy-savingmeansforlettingthesunheatyourhomeshotwater. Lookingatfigure3youcanseethatwhentheUVRstrikestheselectivesurfaceoftheabsorberabasicprincipalofthermaldynamicstakesplace.Theabsorberheatsupandconvertstheultra-violetradiationtoheatenergy.HeatwantstoradiateasInfraRedEnergyIREandnowis whentheglasscoverbecomesveryuseful.IttrapsmostoftheIREinsidethesolarpanelboxandevenreflectsacertainpercentageofitbacktotheabsorberitself.InordertoenhancethisthermaldynamicprocesstheabsorberiscoatedwithaspecialsurfacewhichselectivelyabsorbstheUVRconvertingmostofittoIRE.Thetwokeycharacteristicsoftheselectivesurfacethatoneshouldlookforaretheabsorptivitya-alphaandemissivitye-epsilonfactors.Thesefactorsfallsomewherebetween0.01and0.99.ameasuresthepercentageoftheincidentUVRstrikingtheabsorberbeingconvertedtoIRE.emeasurestheamountofIREorheatbeingre-radiatedfromthehotabsorber.Thegoalistohavetheahighandtheelow.Thelargerthedifferencebetweenthetwofactorsthebetterthethermalefficiencyofthesolarpanel.Thereareseveraltypesofselectivesurfacesonthemarket.Flatblackpaintprovidesaneconomicalselectivesurface.Ithasanavalueof0.96to0.98buttheevalueis0.94to0.96.Thismeansthattheheatedpanelwillre-radiatesalmostasmuchheatasitconvertsthusreducingtheoverallefficiencyofthecollector.Aselectivesurfacesuchasblackchromeorcopperoxidehasanaofapproximately0.94to0.96andaneof0.06to0.08.ThegreaterdifferencebetweenthetwovaluesmeansthatasolarpanelplatedwiththistypeofsurfacewillconvertmuchmoreoftheincidentUVRtousableheat.Thesolarfluidisanon-toxicantifreezesuchaspropyleneglycol.Itshouldcontainafoodgradedyesothataleakintheheatexchangerwillbedetectedbyaslightdiscoloration ofthehotwateratthewatertap.Alsoanon-toxicscrubbingagentsuchasboraxisagoodoptioninordertokeepscalingtoaminimuminsidethesolarpanelsrisertubes.Controllingthescalebuildupwillallowmoreheattotransferthroughtherisertubesintothesolarfluidoverthelifeofthesystem.AswithyourcarsantifreezethepropyleneglycolantifreezeshouldbetestedannuallyforpHandfreezeresistance.PeriodicreplacementofthefluidisnecessarytomaintainaneutralpH.Ifallowedtoremaininthesystemtolongtheantifreezewilltransitiontoanacidiclevelandstarttocorrodethecopperrisertubesandsupplylines. Theheatedglycoliscirculatedfromthesolarpanelarrayviainsulatedcopperplumbingknownastheglycollooptotheheatexchangerwhereitistransferredtothewaterinthestoragetank.Thestoragetankcanbeasecondtankplumbedtosupplypreheatedwatertotheprimaryhotwaterheateroritcanbeasingletankwithanelectricelementtosupplementtheheatifthesolarmakeupwaterisnotsufficientlyhot.Forpeoplewithgas-oroil-firedhotwatertanksatwotanksystemisneededfigure4.Pipethesolartankintothecoldwatermakeuplineofyourregulartankleavingtheelectriccoilinthesolartankun-wired.Thesolartankwillprovidepre-heatedwaterbeforegoingtothesecondtankandifhotenoughsuchascanbeachievedduringsummermonthsnoadditionalheatingofthewaterisneeded.Whenyourprimarytankneedsreplacementyouwouldthenhavetheoptionofreplacingthattankoreliminatingitalltogetherandpoweringtheelectricelementinthesolartank.Sizingyoursolarsystemisbestdonebyaqualifiedtechnician.Aruleofthumbistoallow20gallonsperpersoninthehouseholdperdayforhotwaterconsumption.Soafamilyoffourwouldrequireasolarstoragetankof80gallons.Thenallow75ofyourhotwaterconsumptiontosizeyoursolararray.Thusan80-gallontankwillneed60squarefeetofabsorbersurface.Consideringthemostcommonpanelsizesavailable60squarefeetwouldrequiretwoorthreepanelsforthearray.AswithanysysteminordertoproperlyfunctionyourSolarDomesticHotWaterSystemwillneedabrain.Thisbrainisasimpleelectroniccontrolpackagethatreadsthe temperatureonthesolarpanelscomparesittothetemperatureinthesolarstoragetankandifthereisenoughheatfromthesunturnsonthecirculatingpumpandpushestheglycolthroughthesolararray.TheelectronicpackageisgenerallyknownasaDifferentialControlSystem.Bysensingthetemperaturedifferencebetweenthesolararrayandthestoredwateritknowswhentocollectthesolarheatgeneratedbythepanels.Thesolararrayconsistsofanumberofsolarpanelsconnectedinaparallelflowsequence.Thesolararrayshouldbeorientedsouthwardandtiltedat45degreesinSouthDakotaforoptimumsolargain.Thearraytiltisalwaysequaltothegeographiclatitudeofthesite.ThistiltallowsoptimumUVRtostrikethe panelontheequinoxesandgathersthemostUVRthroughouttheyear.Someminorvariationsfromeitherthetiltororientationwillonlycauseaminorlossinoptimumperformance.Variationsuptotendegreesareacceptableandwillresultinnomorethanafivepercentperformanceloss.Additionallyyoushouldavoidorremoveobjectswhichwouldshadethearrayfrom830A.M.through400P.M.ClearsolarexposureshouldbedeterminedforaDecemberdaywhenthesunislowestintheskyapproximately22.5belowthesolararraytiltfigure5.Whenconnectingthepanelstogetheralwaysusethereverse-returnmethodthatistheglycolloopsupplylineshouldbeconnectedtoonelowerendofthepanelarrayandthereturnlineshouldbeconnectedattheupperandoppositeend.Thismethodassuresthemostbalancedflowofsolarfluidthroughthepanelarrayandprovidesforbestoverallthermalperformance.FinancialAnalysisPeopleoftenwonderifasolarsystemwillpayforitself.Theanswerisadefiniteyesbutdonotthinkintermsofpay-backthinkintermsofReturnonInvestmentROI.ByestimatingtheROIofyoursystemyoucaneasilyequateittootherinvestmentoptions.Thefollowingpro-formaanalysiswilldemonstrate.Installedcostofsystem4200.001Averageannualcostofhotwaterwithoutsolarfamilyoffour460.00Averageannualsavingsassuming75versusanelectrichotwatertank345.00FederalTaxCredit230ofinstalledcost1260.00 StateTaxCreditSouthDakotadoesnothaveastateincometax-0-Effectiveincometaxsavings3Assume33taxbracket152.00FirstyearROISolarsavingstaxcreditincometaxsavingsdividedbytheinstalledcost41.8SecondyearROISolarsavingsincometaxsavingsdividedbytheinstalledcost11.8PossibleadditionaltaxbreaksInvestmentTaxCreditCapitalDepreciationTheInvestmentTaxCreditandCapitalDepreciationmaynotapplytoallinstallations.Consultyourtaxadvisorforoptions.1.Installedcostwillvarydependingonseveralfactors.4200isareasonableestimatedcostforafamilyoffour.2.Thisanalysisassumestheentiretaxcredittobeappliedinthefirstyear.Theunusedbalanceofthetaxcreditmaybeheldovertosubsequentyears.3.Sincethesolarreturnisasavingsitisthereforenottaxable.TheequivalenttaxableROImustbecomputedtomakevalidcomparisontootherinvestments.DoesthisROIexceedtheannualreturnofotherinvestmentsyouhaveThenfromafinancialpointofviewyoumaybewell-servedtomovesomeofyourmoneyintoasolarhotwatersystem.Addedintrinsicvaluessuchasgreeningtheenvironmentandenergyindependencearenotincludedinthismodel.Thismodelalsoassumesthatyouhiredacontractortoinstallyoursystem.IfyoufeelthatyouhavecapableplumbingandelectricalskillstoperformyourowninstallationthenyoucouldreduceyourcostsandincreasetheROIevenmore.Andnoassumptionhasbeenmadeforanyincreaseinutilityratesovertheterm oftheanalysis.Thisisagivenassureasthesunwillriseeverymorning.Theclosedloophotwatersystemisthetraditionaltypeofsolarsystemthathasbeenaroundfordecades.RecentlyBradfordWhiteCompanyhasintroducedanewtypeofsolarhotwatertank.Itisanelectrichotwatertankdesignedtoworkdirectlywithphotovoltaicpanelseliminatingtheneedforanyglycolloopplumbingorthermalpanels.Ifyouhaveanexistingphotovoltaicsolarelectricsystemthetankcanbeaddedasquicklyasareplacementhotwatertank.Althoughthisisarecentinnovationitdeservessomeattention. SolarHeatingUsingtheprinciplesalreadyoutlinedinthisarticleonecanscaleupasolarhotwatersystemtoprovidespaceheatinginyourhomeshopandoutbuildings.Spaceheatingwithsolaristhesamepremiseasheatinghotwaterexceptthehotwaterdoesnotgotoyourwatertankbutrunsthroughafinnedcoilinyourductworkfigure6.Thesolarheatedwaterthenheatstheairasitisforcedthroughtheductworkintoyourhousebythefurnacefan.Thewaterstoragetankandthesolararrayarelargerthanadomestichotwatersystemsincemoreheatisrequiredtoheatyourhome.AdditionallythetiltonthearrayisanadditionaltendegreessoastohavemoredirectUVRinthewintermonthssincethatiswhenthemostsolargainisneeded.Sizingaspaceheatingsystemisbestlefttoaqualifiedcontractorormechanicalengineer.SincesolarcanprovideayearroundcontributiontoyourpotablehotwateritnaturallyprovidesabetterROIversusspaceheating.Thespaceheatingsystemsitsunusedforaportionoftheyearwhereasthesolarhotwatersystemprovidesyearroundsavings.Butthatdoesnotimplythatasolarspaceheatingsystemisnotfeasible.ByanalyzingyourROIyoucandecidewhichsystemwillbestworkforyou.HavefunLinksofinteresthttpwww.viessmann.comcomenproductsSolar_systems.htmlhttpwww.sunwindenergy.comcontentthermafin-manufacturinghttpwww.genproenergy.comhttpwww.bradfordwhite.comproductssolarhttpnlsolarheating.solartubs.comsolar-controllers-c-3.htmlhttpjc-solarhomes.comdifferential_controller_kit.htm VinceStark Classoffersscholarshipsandspecialveteranfunding.FarmBeginningsafarmerandrancher-ledtrainingandsupportprogramwillbeheldforonemoreyearintheBlackHillsarea.FarmBeginningsisa10-sessiontrainingprogramprovidingparticipantstheopportunitytolearnfirst-handaboutlow-costsustainablemethodsoffarmingandranchingandthetoolstosuccessfullylaunchaprofitableenterprise.ThisisthesecondtimethecoursewillbeofferedinRapidCityandwilllikelymovetoanotherlocationinthestatenextyear.Scholarshipsandspecialveteranfundingavailableareofferedtohelpwithtuitioncosts.FarmBeginningsparticipantscanbeofanyagedonotneedtocurrentlyownlandandcomefromwiderange ofexperiencesandfarmingandranchinginterests.Over50familieshaveenrolledinthecourseinthepastfiveyearsand83ofgraduatesarecurrentlyengagedinfarmingactivitiesonly30reportedinvolvementinfarmingactivitiesbeforetakingtheclass.CoursegraduateKyleCoxofSturgisSDutilizedthebusinessplanhedevelopedintheclasstoexpandhissweetcornbusinessbysecuringaloanforacornroaster.Theroasterwillallowhimtocreateaready-to-eatproducthewillmarketattheSturgisRally.CoxsaidIwillbeutilizingalmostalloftheclassmaterialsthatwerepresentedandIwillbeusingthenetworkofprofessionalsinthefuture.JamesDoylewhoowns4WindsFarminPiedmontSDsaidFarmBeginningshelpedhimfigureouthowtomakefarmingworkforhimfinancially.Werestartingsmallbutwewantthefarmtopullitsownweight.Oneenterpriseat4WindsispasturedhogswhichtheDoyleshavefoundcarriesastrongdemand.Oncepeopleheardwehadpigstheywantedthemimmediately.Themeatisdeliciousandtheyareawesomeanimaltoraise.Theytakeyourkitchenandgardenscrapsandturnthemintoporkchops.Werestartingsmallbutwewantthefarmtopullitsownweight. FarmBeginningsclassesareheldtwiceamonthfromDecembertoAprilandfocusontopicssuchaswholefarmplanningfinancialandbusinessplanningmarketingandconnectingwithresourcesandmentors.Allclassesareledbyestablishedfarmersandranchersandagriculturalprofessionals.ThereareopportunitiesforstudentstofurthertheirskillsbyparticipatinginmentorshipswithlocalfarmersandrancheratfielddaysofferedthroughDakotaRuralActionsFarmerNetworkinthesummer.Overeighty-percentofcoursegraduatesparticipateintheseon-farmactivitiesafterfinishingthecourse.ProspectiveparticipantscancontactDakotaRuralActionat605-697-5204x220oremailProgramCoordinatorHeidiKolbeck-Urlacheratheidikudakotarural.org.Classsizeislimitedandearlyapplicationisencouraged.Applicationdeadlineforthe2014RapidCityclassisOctober31st.ThereisalimitedamountofJimmyDoyle4WindsFarm scholarshipsavailabletohelpwithtuitioncosts.Courseinformationandonlineapplicationcanbefoundatwww.dakotarural.orgfarmbeginnings.FarmBeginningsisanestablishedcurriculumdevelopedoveradecadeagobytheMinnesota-basedLandStewardshipProjectthatisnowreplicatedinseveraldifferentstatesincludingILNENDandNY.DakotaRuralActionhasadaptedthecurriculumtomeettheneedsofSouthDakotafarmersandranchers.TheprojectissupportedbytheBeginningFarmerandRancherDevelopmentProgramoftheNationalInstituteofFoodandAgricultureUSDAGrant2010-03066.DakotaRuralActionisagrassrootsfamilyagricultureandconservationgroupthatorganizesSouthDakotanstoprotectourfamilyfarmersandranchersnaturalresourcesanduniquewayoflife.www.dakotarural.org EditorsNoteThefirstpartofSarasserieswaspublishedintheSpring2014issueofBHSLunderthetitleIThoughtIHadaBackInjurybeginningonpage54.httpwww.blackhillssimplelife.comSpring2014index.htmlPartTwoFearandResolveWhereweleftoffinmystoryIhadbeenjustdiagnosedwithcanceranditwasChristmas.BySaraRoseWithoutbeinguponasoapboxIwillsaythisWhatwasmostappallingtomewashowquicklymyhealthcareprovidersandinsurancecompanywantedtotakeawaymybasicrightsandmychoicesovermybody.IspentmonthsintearsasIfoughtdoctorsandinsurancelackeysoversurgerychemotherapymedicationsthelistwasendless.Itmademerealizethatmydecisiontonotfollowmyparentspathintohealthcarewasasoundonebecauseoftherestrictionsandredtapeeverywhere.ItalsohumbledmetoreallyconsidertheideathatIwasactuallynotincontrolofmyownbodyandchoices.LuckilypartofmycareteamwasawomanIhadtrustedmyandmychildrenslivestoshefoughtveryhardtoseethatIwasgiventhetreatmentthatwasnecessarytoeradicatemycancer.ShewarnedmethatIcouldseesomeveryterribleconsequencesbutreallythosewereoflessimportancetomethanstayingalive.OvariancancermovesveryfastifgiventhechanceandeverymorningIwokeupfeelinglessmyselfandmore ofatimebomb.Fourmonthsaftermydiagnosismyinsurancereluctantlyagreedtomysurgeryanditthentookanothermonthtoscheduleit.Istruggledtokeepmyresolve.IwontlieandsaythattherewerenttimesthatIwasinaverydarkplacewhereIdidntspeakeatorevenstepoutofourbedroomforweeksatatime.MyhusbandandIkeptitquietfromourchildrenandoptedonlytosharethatMomisjustreallysickrightnow.Wewerejustsoyoungandwedidntreallyknowhowtotellmerebabessomethingsoterriblebecauseitcangoeitherway.FinallysurgerywasscheduledinAprilanditwasthishugeweightoffeverybody.Mymomandauntmadesurethatwehadahousekeeperanannyourcarsservicedgroceries.PostSurgery Myhusbandsworkwassogenerousandlethimworkaslittleasheneededto.AfriendofminewhodoesnailsmadesureminewerefantasticabouttwoweekspriorincaseshehadtocometakethemoffbecauseIwasscaredandshewantedmetohavesomethingprettywithme.Myin-lawswhoweredeeplyterrifiedcameandtookthekidsforabouttwoweeks.ThenightbeforethesurgeryIreallydidntsleep.IwasupandIwatchedtheskyandsatinmychildrensroomtolistentothembreathe.ItsprettyrareforthetypeofsurgeryIneededtohavetogowrongbutIhadnoidea.IhadtomakesomesortofpeacewiththeideathatthenextdayImayormaynotcomehome.Iwatchedmyhusbandseyelashesonhischeeksasheslept.Ilistenedtomychildrenbreatheinrhythm.Iwatchedthecatschaseeachother.Iwatchedthesunrise.Itriedtopray.WewentintosurgeryearlythatnextmorningandaroundsixhourslaterthedoctortalkedtoNolanandsaidthatitwasagoodthingtheyperformedsurgerytheyhadtoremovefarmoretissuethantheyhadpreviouslythought.Myrecoverywouldbelongerandharderthanwethought.IjustwokeupoverwhelminglynauseatedandinsearingfierypainwithmyhusbandandnursesmovingmeintoourcarandmybestfriendwaitingwithabagoffoodforhimandaSpriteforme.Iwokeupacoupledayslater.Inpainnauseatedandawomanwashumminginmykitchensweepingwhilelaundryhummed.Thekidswerewiththegrandparentsandmyhusbandwasatwork.Thewomanwaltzedintomyroomwithamugandacupofpills.Youarenotwellno ImMariana.Wewillfixthat.YouwillrestandIwillcookandclean.Iamonlysupposedtobehereonceaweekbutwillbeheredailybecauseyouneedmamarightnow.Drinkthistaketheseandsleep.OverthenextfewweeksMarianatoldmeaboutlifehereandherlifebackinRomania.Shewouldmakemecometothetableorthechairwehadnexttothepicturewindowtosipteasandbrothswhileshetalkedabouthowsheneverfelttypicalmedicineisaboutmakingpeoplehealthybutjustfunctional.MymindstartedslowlywhirringasIstartedreadingandwritingagain.IstartedoralchemoandmydietstillconsistedofteaSpritebrothtoastandoccasionaloatmeal.WeDailymedicinalteasandfunchocolatemilkMarianawouldmakeforthekids. werehitbytheinsuranceletterstatingthatitwasbelievedmycancerwasapre-existingcondition.Nothingwouldbecovered.Myfriendsralliedtohelpusaffordappointmentsmedicationandlife.Iwasoverwhelminglysadmostofthetime.MarianawouldbringmetoourporchwithacupofteaorbrothdailyandfinallysaidYoucannotmakealifehereanymore.Youwillnotgetbetter.Mypriorityhadtobenotjustmyhealthbutalsoourwholefamilyswellness.Drasticchangesstartedtoforminmyhead.Wemadethechoicetomove.WewerealreadyvegetarianbutwerewereallyHarvestfromourfirsttomatoeshereintheHills.Dailyfreshjuices-beetcarrotandrootjuice. eatingforoptimumhealthWhataboutourexerciseWerewemindfulofourselvesinhowwekepthousewhatourdailyhabitswereevenwherewewerelivingTherealityisthatwehadallbeensickwithoneailmentoranotherforyears.Wewerenthappywholeorsatisfied.CancerbecameacatalystforusandIstillhadalongwaystogo.Nowitwastimetofocusonthemajorchangesthatwouldhelpmefinishmycancerjourneyandpropelourfamilyforwardasweallfocusedontotalwellness.IhadtoacceptthatImayneverbefullyokagainbutthatwehadtotrychange.WhilefeelingabitlostandsadwepulledourselvesupwiththehelpofourfriendscamebacktotheBlackHillsandcontinuedthechangetowardsmindfulthoughtfulhealth.Oncewehadsettledinwedidntgetcomfortable.Wekeptmakingchanges.Wecontinuedtobemindfulofwhatweatemyhusbandboughtabikeandstartedgoingforridesourchildrenwerehappytowalkallthewayacrosstownjusttogototheparkandwetookuphikingtrailsbothshortandlong.Fullbodywellnessbecameoneofourmaingoalsonewewillprobablyneverreachbutoneitmakesusallhappytocontinuestrivingtoward.InrecoverywithmybelovedcatDianatokeemecoman. ByElizaBlueWhenIfirstgotmymilkcowlastwintereveryoneItoldchuckledandusuallyaskedthefollowingquestionwithslightlyraisedeyebrowsHaveyoueverevenmilkedacowbeforeIhadnt.IadmitIwasalittleworriedmyselftheexperiencewouldntbeasgloriousasIdimaginedbutIhopedtheoutcomefreshmilkwouldoutweighthechallenges.YouseeIamnewtoranchlife.IgrewupinsuburbanDetroitandthenhoppedbetweenNewYorkCityPhiladelphiaandMinneapolisformostofmytwenties.HowIgotfromsomeofthegreaturbancentersofAmericatoruralSouthDakotaisalongstorybutnowthatIamhereIcantimagineeverleaving.IlovewakinginthemorningtothegossipysoundsofsongbirdsinthelilacsandcrazyasitmaysoundIlovetheritualofchores.ForthelastfewyearsIhavebeenresponsibleforthedailydutiesassociatedwithasmallcoopofhensandalittlepastureofbumlambs.ThesymphonyofsoftclucksandthewildlambyleapsofjoyasIapproacharewellworththedailydevotionrequired.Stilltheideaofmilkingeverydaytwiceadaywasdaunting.RitaabeautifultawnybrownjerseyarrivedinFebruaryandRuthiehercalfarrivedinMarch.MarchofthisyearlookedprettysimilartoJanuary--wellmaybealittlecolderwithalotmoresnow.IwasteachingschoolfulltimethensoIdventureoutinmyinsulatedbrowncoverallsmilkpailinhandandmilkRitaasthefirstrose-graylightbrokeovertheeasternhills.MostmorningsthewarmsoapyclothIbroughttocleanherudderswasfrozenstiffbythetimeIreachedthecorral. Fromthefirstitwasnotwithoutchallenges.RitaandIwerestillgettingusedtoeachotherandaftershekickedoveranearlyfullbucketIkeptmylefthandonthepailatalltimes.Thathandwouldgrowveryverycold.ButIlikedit.Itfeltlikemagictowatchthosethinlinesofwarmmilksizzleintothecoldaluminummilkpail.BackinthekitchenIdstrainthemilkintopintjarswhereitwouldglowcreamilyonthecountertop.Whenyougardenyouwatchyourfoodgrowupincrementallywhenyoumilkitappearsinstantlymadetoorderandreadytouse.Alsowhenyouareaccustomedtothecreaturesunderyourcarebeingprimarilycompanionanimalsitisrevelatorytohaveacritterthatfeedsyouback.Ritawasgentlepersonableandeasilyconvincedthatwewerebestfriendsespeciallyiftherewasgraininvolved.InthosefirstcoldmorningsbundledsobigIcouldbarelybendIwouldsingherlovesongswhileImilkedandshewouldsighlongsteamysighsofpleasureassheateherbreakfast.MarchsnowstormsturnedtoAprilsnowstormswhichturnedtoMay snowstormsandthroughthemallcheekpressedtoRitaswarmflankImilked.ImadeittotheendoftheschoolyearwhentheweatherfinallywarmedbutIlladmitthetwice-a-dayroutinewasbeginningtowearonme.ThefirsttimeImilkedinshirtsleevesshouldhavefeltlikeliberationbutitdidnt.MeanwhilewehadacquiredBettythebumcalfwhogottonursewhenIfinishedmilking.Isupplementedherfeedingswithbottlesofmilkreplacer.BattlingtokeeptwogrowingcalvescorralledwasanotherchallengeandafterthefirstsharphooftothekneeIreallybegantodreadthewholeordeal.Idontrememberhowtheseedoffreedomwasplantedexactly.IthinkIreadanarticlesomewhereaboutonlymilkinginthemorningifyoukeptthecalveswiththemamaduringthedayandboythatsoundedappealingThentherealtestofmymettlecame--anopportunityforanovernighttriptoacabininthemountains.Findinganeighbortodothefeedingandwateringwasnttoobigadealbutafill-inmilkerNowthatsatallorder.SooutwentRitaRuthieandBettytojointhesheepinthelittlegreenpasturebehindthehouse.WhenIreturnedhomeRitasbagwasemptyandbothcalveslookedwell-fedandpleasedwiththesituation.TherestofthesummerpassedblissfullyatleastwherethecowwasconcernedmystruggleswiththeIhadfoundthesecrettoenjoyingmymilkcowwithoutbecomingaslavetotheudder. gardenareanotherstoryentirelyIhadfoundthesecrettoenjoyingmymilkcowwithoutbecomingaslavetotheudder.WhenIwantedfreshmilkIbroughtRitainforanightwhenIdidntIleftherout.BythenthebabieswereeatinglotsoffreshgrasssoIdidntworryaboutsupplementinganymore.Ritawithherstoutjerseygenesmadeenoughrichsweetmilktokeepusallsatisfied.Andthatsthewholestory.Nowitisfallthecalvesarereadytobeweanedmilkproductionhassloweddownanditwontbelongbeforewellonceagainbedreamingofspringanewcalfandfreshmilk.NextyearRitawillbeafouryearoldandifhealthywillproduceevenmore.Awell-organizedranchwifeIknowraisesasmanyastwelvebumcalvesasummerwiththemilkfromonejersey.Ofcoursenoonewouldeverdescribemeaswell-organizedsoIwillprobablybumpalonginafashionsimilartothisyear--takingwhatI needandlettingthebabiespickuptheslack.Itllkeepusincreamandmefromgoingcrazy.PerhapsmyurbanupbringingistoblameformylackoffortitudebutIamquitegratefultoenjoytherewardsofhavingahomedairywhilestillhavingmyfreedom.SometimeswhenIamfeelingreallywildIevenstayouttillafterdark.Soifyouvethoughtofgoinginforamilkcowyourselfbenotafraid.Itispossibletodoitandleaveyourhomesteadeveryonceinawhiletoo.Enjoy MichelleGrosek AUTUMNALPALETTEByCarolBrookensAzureblueartisticautumnskiesalignedwithBurntSiennaandbeautifulBittersweet.CinnabarChartreuseCarmineandCopperwithDandelionyellowdippinganddancing-EcruandEggshellelegantlyentangledwithFuchsiaandFlameinflippantfinery.GreenGoldGreyandGambogeingracefulgrassesHeliotropeHennaandHunterhelter-skelteracrosshillsides.Indigo-idyllicintheshadows.JadeandJasminejoyouslyjuxtaposedwithKellyandKumquat.LavenderandLemonlavishedonleafletsleadingtoMagentaandmarvelouslymistyMauvemornings.NavyandNeonnonchalantnuancesoverOrangeandOchreOchreWhatcolorisOchrePeridotandPurpleyPlumprairiesprecedingQuartzandQuincequietlyquaint. RedsRedsRedsriotousRubyRedsSageandSandshiftinginsunshinenexttoTurquoiseandTopazwithtreesofTeal.UltramarineandUmberunderlyingundertonescrossingthroughVioletVerdigrisandVeridianvalleyswhileWalnutWinesandWheatwhipwildinthewinds.AndXenon.colorlessoderlessxenonovertheYarrowandtheyellowsyieldingatlasttoZinc...thecoldgreysteelyzinc...ofthecomingwinter. AbundanceonthePrairieAswemoveintothefallseasonwecontinuetobethankfulfortheflourishingsummerpasturesandsuccessfulcropgrowth.ByRobynGoddardOneofthepredictablefactorsofranchingisunpredictability.Ranchersandfarmersliketothinkwehaveahandleontasksoftheseasonandwhatweintendtoaccomplishonaspecificdaybutwearesubjecttotheweatherworkingwithanimalsandmachinerybreakdowns.Thereisnoscientificreasonbehindthesedistractionsjustthewell-knownfactthattheymustbedealtwith.2014willgointherecordbooksandstickoutinourmemoriesasayearofabundance.Theagriculturecommunityhasbeenblessedwithmoisturethathasnourishedourgrasslandsprairiecropsandlivestock.Manyretiredranchershavecommentedthattheyhaveneverseenthecountrysidesoplentiful.AbundanceofMoistureThereisonegoodthingthatcamefromlastOctobersepicblizzardmoisture.Thesignificantamountoffallmoisturefromthatstormhelpedtohealtheprairieandfarmlandfrom2014willgointherecordbooksandstickoutinourmemoriesasayearofabundance.Theagriculturecommunityhasbeenblessedwithmoisturethathasnourishedourgrasslandsprairiecropsandlivestock. recentyearsofdroughtconditions.Wehadmorethanadequatespringmoisturewith8.55ofraininJunealone.Theannualrainaverageforourareais16-17.AbundanceofGrassandCloverTheabundanceofmoisturemadethegrassandclovergrow.EvenwithJunescooltemperaturestheprairieflourishedinqualityandquantityoflivestockfeed.Yelloworsweetcloveradornedtheprairie.Notonlyisclovergreatfeeditbenefitstheprairietoo.Thesweetcloverplanthasanabilitytoextractnutrientsfromsoilthatotherplantscant.Cloverisalegumethatfixesnitrogenintothesoilandhasataprootthatgivesittheabilitytoloosensoilsdecreasesoilcompactionandincreaseorganicmatter.Allofthesecharacteristicsplayaroleinincreasingnaturalfertilityoftheland1.AbundanceofHayIfyouhavetraveledaroundtheHillsorSouthDakotaingeneralIamsureyouhaveseenmorehaybalesthaneverbefore.Thisyearshaycrophasbeenphenomenal.Manyranchershaveputuptwotothreetimesmorehaythananaverageyearwillproduce.In additionmanyhaveputupasecondcuttingofhay.Secondcuttinghayinourareaisrareduetoourshortgrassanddryclimate.Wefeelblessedtohavesomuchhayonourranch.AfterbeinghailedoutonMay252013wedidntgetthehaycropwewereexpectinglastyear.Thisyearwewillfillourhayneedsandcarryhayoverforthenextyear.Wedecidednottogoafterasecondcuttingasmostofourgrassalfalfahayisinourwinterpasture.Ourcowswillhaveexcellentpickingswhentheycomehomefromsummerpasture.AbundanceofBeautyThissummertheprairiewasdecoratedwithflowers.Tallshortbiglittleandbellshapedflowerswithblossomsinorangeyellowlilacpurplepinkandwhite.Wilddaisiesoftallandyelloworshortandwhitewehadthemall.PastelsofcactusbloomsdottedtheprairieinlateJunefollowedbypurpleconeflowersinJuly.Thephotographerinmetookmanyopportunitiestostopandcapturethegorgeousfluorescence. AswemoveintothefallseasonmyhusbandandIcontinuetobethankfulfortheflourishingsummerpasturesandsuccessfulcropgrowth.Themuch-neededmoisturewehavereceivedinthelastyearhelpstohealandnourishourgrasslandsprairieandcropground.Ourlivestockhavedonewellonhighqualityforagesandwelookforwardtofallharvest.Wehavetakenadvantageofthisyearsmanyblessingsastheonlythingwecanpredictfornextspringisunpredictability.1FormoreinformationaboutsweetclovercheckouttheSARESustainableAgricultureResearchEducationwebsitehttpwww.sare.orgLearning-CenterBooksManaging-Cover-Crops-Profitably-3rd-EditionText-VersionLegume-Cover-CropsSweet-Clovers MondayogaEvening400515p.m.SBHSLibraryMediaCenterAlllevelswelcome6-WeekSessionNov.3Dec.8Pre-PaymentandPre-RegistrationRequired45forthesession HiddenConsiderationsGettingfoodfromthegrocerystoreseemssimplebutstopforamomenttoconsidersomeotherfoodsystemcomplexities.ByJohnDaleAswedrovethefreewaybetweenTucsonandNogalesinSouthernArizonadozensoflargesemitrucksdashedthehighwaygoingtoandfromtheportofentryinNogalesAZ.Justacrosstheborderthebuildingsweretoodenselypackedtotellthemapart.Multicoloredsignspepperedeverysquareinchofeverythingblastingtheeyewithacollageofdisorder. ThelongroadSouththroughtheMexicansideofNogalesbroughtaprocessionofpovertydrugstoresredlightdistrictsbeersignsandtacostands.Thecarsinchedalongthetwolaneroadgoingsouthasdogswindowwashersmafiosoandchildrendartedinbetweentheslowmovingcarstogetacrossthestreet.Itwasharvestseason.ThefirstcoupleofmilesjustSouthofNogalestookhours.AswewoundsouthwardintoMexicoeventuallythedensecitygavewaytoopenhighwayswith6-footdropoffsonbothsides.Fatalitieswerecommonalongthatroadsincemanytheredidntwearseatbeltsandtheroadswereunpredictablenotforthefeintofheart.EvenSouthoftheborderthetrucksrolledon.AswemadeourwaysouthwardwediscoveredGuaymasMexicowithitsthousandsoftomatogreenhousesfeverishlyproducingtomatoesforexporttotheUnitedStates.GuaymasislocatedinSonoraMexicoanditisapowerhouseproduceroffruitsandvegetablesmanyforexport.JustuptheroadinYumaArizonacropproductionwaspumpingjustinsidetheAmericanborder.WhetherfromGuaymasorfromYumathoughmuchofthefruitwasboundforfardistantlands.Economiesofscaleisacommonrefrainamongagandtruckingbaronsasmillionsofdieselthumpersspewthickcombustionbyproductintoourairtofertilizeplantharvestandtransportmassproducedtomatoescornberriescucumbersmelonsandothercrops.Thelogisticsrequiredtodeliverproducenationallynumbsthemind.Tomatoesinordertosurvivethetriptothesupermarketmustbe harvestedatexactlytherightmomentbeforebeingexposedtoagasin-transittrickingthetomatoesintoturningredandripelooking.Ifyouharvesttooearlytheflavorisbitterandraw.Harvesttoolateandtheyrotonthetruck.OneoptionistogoGMObutgeneticallyengineeredtomatoeselevatethecomplexityofthelogisticschainconsideringtheRDandmarketmanipulationrequiredtomakeandsellthestuff.Onthesurfaceitseemsalotsimplertoheadtothesupermarketandpickupacoupleoftomatoeswhenyouneedthem.Butscratchbeyondthatandonequicklydiscoversthecomplexityexistsstill.Itsjustbeenexternalizedtoenvironmentalqualityairwaterlandandlife.IfyouliveinTheBlackHillsyoulllikelyeatenalotofimportedproducethroughtheyearsbuthowdidpeopleheresurvivetheWinterbeforeweturnedMexicointoTheUnitedStatesbackyardgardenMygrandparanthebigscrapyardinBelleFourcheacrossfromthegraveyardwhereheisnowburied.Hisbrothermarriedhiswifessistermakingalltheirchildrenessentiallybrotherandsister.GrandpaandGrandmahad12kidstofeedandasIunderstandittheyusedrelativelyfewMexicantomatoestogetthemthroughwintertime.SohowdidtheydoitWhenmymomwasgrowingupinBelletheSpearfishlowervalleyusedtobepepperedwithtruckfarms.Theywereacrucialcomponentto survivalaswascuttinghayintheditches.UncleMacwasfamousforputtinguphayintheditches-gottakeepBessiefedthroughWinterIhadachatwithmymomaboutthisandthisiswhatshehadtosay.MydadandsistersandIusedtopileintothetruckandheadovertoSpearfisheveryyear.DadwouldhorsetradewiththefarmersoffEvansLane.Wedbringboxesofproducehomeandcan.Wedgetabunchofpotatoesandcarrotsfortherootcellarburiedincoolsand.Wehuntedandbutchereddeerandwemadeitthrougheverywinterthatway.Weknewwhereourfoodcamefrom.Wedbuy80poundsacksofpotatoesfortherootcellar.BySpringthepotatoeswouldhaverootsseveralincheslong.Itwasasimplermoreinnocenttime.EveryonelivingintheSpearfishareacouldseeunderstandmaintain andshareinthatlocalfoodsystem.Someyearswereleanerthanothersanditwasalwaysimportanttogetyourfillofwhatwasinseason.Wevecreatedagreatdealofcomplexitygloballytobeabletosimplywalkintothesupermarketfulloffructosederivativespilefoodofunknownoriginintoacoldplasticcartandwalkoutindifferenttothetruecosts.Inthemeantimefamilybuildingactivitieslikecanninghavegivenwaytoacentralizedfoodsystemgrowsincreasinglydependentupongeneticwizardrycentralizedprocessingmonopolisticpracticesanddiminishingfossilfuelsforscalability.Askanaveragekindergartenstudentnowwheretheirfoodcomesfromandtheyllsaysupermarket.AskanadultandyoumightgetananswerlikeIdontknowactually.Theanswertothequestioncanberatheroffensivewhenconsideringalltheinputstothecurrentsystemsoperation.PerhapsthatsthereasonLowerValleymarketgardenshavemadeacomeback.Wevedustedoffthecanningjars.Youshouldtoo.JohnDalespent18yearsinTucsonAZworkinginamongotherthingsAgricultureandWaterResourcesManagement.AsakidhelefttheBlackHillstomovetoGuantanamoBayCubabeforeeventuallylandinginArizona.HeearnedaMasterofSciencefromTheUniversityofArizonabeforereturningtoSpearfish32yearsafterleavingbringingwithhimalifetimeofwonderfulexperiences. ForEveryThingThereisaSeasonSeasonalfoodsofferanaturalculinarydiversitythatcanbetakenadvantageofevenintheBlackHills.ByMichelleGrosekBearButteGardensForseveralyearsnowIhavebeenonamissiontosourceasmuchofourfoodaspossiblefromlocalproducers.ThefirstarticleIwroteforBlackHillsSimpleLifewasentitledLocavoreandinitIwroteaboutmygoaltofindlocallyproducedfoodsasoftenasIcouldforboththehighernutritionvalueaswellastheinputintothelocaleconomy.OverthepastfewyearsofpursuingthisgoalIhavebecomemoreattunedtoeatinginseason.Forsomefoodgroupsthisiseasyforothersitismoredifficult.ForexampleIcaneasilydefinethetrueseasonforasparagusbecauseitonlygrowsinSouthDakotafromearlytomidspring.Asthedayslengthenandgrowwarmerasparagusgoestoseedandquitsproducingnewshoots.Butwhataboutsomeotherthings--whatisthetrueseasonforwheatflourOrbetteryetwhatisthetrueseasonfordifferentkindsofmeatYeseveryfoodhasatrueseasonandourbodieshavebeengearedforthousandsofyearstoneedspecificfoodsduringspecificseasons.Soletsexplorethistopicalittleandseeifwecandefinesometrueseasonsforthefoodsthatweeatonadailybasis. Firstweneedtoidentifyourgeographicregionandhowthataffectsourseasonalfoodchoicesandwhyourbodiescravecertainfoodsatcertaintimesoftheyear---ifwepayattentiontoourbodies.WehavereadersallaroundtheglobesoaquickdefinitionofmygeographiclocationmightbethatIliveat44.44degreeslatitudeintheGreatPlainsoftheUnitedStates.MygrowingseasonisZone5-ish.Wegetapproximately18inchesofrainperyear.OurlastfrostinthespringisapproximatelyMay15.OurfirstfrostinthefallisapproximatelyOctober1.Temperaturesrangefrom-30Fto109F.BecauseIgardenandforageforcertainfoodsIhappentoknowthatatmyparticularlocationthenaturalseasonsforthefollowingitemsareaslistedMorelMushroomsAprilMaySnowPeasMayJuneAsparagusMayJuneStrawberriesJune-SeptemberTomatoesJuly-SeptemberRaspberriesJulyAugustApplesAugusttoOctoberHoneyAugusttoOctoberWildPlumsSeptemberHazelnutsSeptemberBrusselsSproutsSept.OctoberOverthepastfewyearsofpursuingthisgoalIhavebecomemoreattunedtoeatinginseason.Forsomefoodgroupsthisiseasyforothersitismoredifficult. Theseasonsforthoseitemsmayvaryafewweeksanygivenyearduetocoolerthannormalorwarmerthannormaltempsbutthelistisprettytrueeachyear.Ofcourseifyouhaveagreenhouseyoucangrowmanyfoodsearlierandlaterthannormalforthisregion.Alloftheitemslistedabovecanbepreservedinsomewayfreezingcanningdehydratingorstoringlong-termattheappropriatetemperature.Thuswecanenjoyallofthoseitemsalittlebitlongeroutsideofthenaturalseasonofthefood.InmyquesttoeatlocallyproducedfoodsIstartedwonderingabouttheotherthings.WhataboutmeatIsthereaseasonfordifferentkindsofmeatIcanbuymeatanytimeatthegrocerystorejustlikevegetablesandfruitbutthatdoesntmeanitsinseason.Andwhenyoustartsourcinglocallyyoustarttorealizethatindeedthereisaseasonforvariouskindsofmeat.Formetheeasiestonestoconnectmeattypetoaseasonwerevenisonelkantelope.thewildgamethatmyfamilyhunted.AutumnandearlywinterAstemperaturesbegantocoolandhuntingseasonsopenedupwewouldgetaninfluxofwildmeatscomingthroughthekitchentobecutupandfrozenorcanned.Againpreservingtheabundanceoftheseasonforgoodeatingtherestoftheyear. IhavetoadmitmydadwasntmuchofafishermansowedidnthavealotoffishinthehomegrowingupbutinourregiontheobviousfishingtimeisduringthewarmermonthsofMaytoOctoberwiththeoccasionaldiehardfishermanpartakinginicefishingduringthewintermonths.WhenisthenaturalseasonforbeefporklambandpoultryIhadtothinkaboutthisalittleandeventalkwithsomeproducers.GoingwiththeshortestlifespanmeatitemfirstchickensIamgainingknowledgeasIraisebroilers.Itmakessensetoraisepoultryduringthewarmseasonwhentheycanbekeptoutsidewithouttheaddedexpenseofheat.Duringthewarmermonthsyoualsohavemorefeedsuppliesreadilyathandtoreducethecostoffeedingtheyoungbirds.Mostchickensgrownformeatbroilerswillbebutcheredanywherefrom8weeksto15weeks.SoifayoungbirdisfullyfeatheredandreadytobeoutsideindecenttemperaturesatfourweeksofagewecanputouryoungbroilersoutaboutJune1standplantobutcherthemaroundJuly15th.OurlastgroupofbroilersmaygetbutcheredsometimeinNovemberifwewanttoprovidesomekindofsheltertothemthelastweeks.SothatworksoutprettywellfortheThanksgivingturkeystoo.Turkeys takelongertomatureandfattenuptosizesoyouwillgetonebutcheringsessioneachyearinthefall.Againoncebutcheredthebirdscancertainlybefrozenorcanned.Lambs---Iamlearningthatyouwanttoprocessalambatabout100pounds.DependingonyourfeedoptionsthatwillprobablyhappensometimeinSeptemberorOctober.Sofreshlambwillbeavailableinthefall.Pork---Wehavefriendswhoareraisingpigsandtellmethatyouwanttogetthepigletsinthespringwhenitiswarmingupandtheycanbeoutside.Iamtoldagoodmarketweightforahogisabout250poundsandifapigisforagingalittleandgettingalittlefeedthatwillhappenataboutfivemonths.SoyoumightexpecttobeabletobuyahoginOctoberorNovemberinourarea.Beef--WebuyityearrounddontweWewantbeefallyearlongandwecangetitatthestorebutisthatreallywhatweshouldexpectforgoodlocalbeefLetsbreakthisdownalittle.Iamgoingtoassumeyouwouldliketopurchasebeefthatstartedoutasacalfraisedbyitsmommaoutonpastureandpossiblyliveditsentirelifeonpasturepossiblygettingalittlesupplementalgrainhereandtherebutthemajorityofitsfoodbeingofferedthroughgrazingandsomebalesofhayinthewintermonths.Apastureraisedandfinishedsteercantakeabout2yearstogettoadesiredslaughterweightwhichvariesdependingonthebreed.SoifacalfisborninMarchorAprilandwecountout30months2yearswecanexpectslaughterofthatnicelyfattenedsteertohappeninSeptember-Octobertimeframe.Againbeefcaneasilybepackaged andfrozenorprocessedandcannedforlongerstoragetobeenjoyedlaterintheyear.WhataboutgrainsIreallygetgreatjoyfrombuyinglocalwheatflour.InourregionwecangetwinterwheatstartinginJulyandspringwheatinthefall.Thegrainscanbestoredwholeundertherightconditionsuntilneededatwhichtimetheycanbesoakedandcookedorfreshlygroundforflour.CorngrownforgrindingintoflourormealtakesawholegrowingseasonandwillbereadytodryforstorageorgrindinginSeptemberOctober.Nowtocoversomeofthoseitemsthatsimplycannotbesourcedlocally butyoustillwanttobeawareoftheoptimaltimeeachyeartheyareinseasonwithintheUnitedStatesforthehighestnutritionalvaluebestchoiceofvarietiesandbestpriceduetoin-seasonquantity.HereisalistAlmondsAugusttoOctoberAvocadoesFebruarytoSeptemberBananasJunetoOctoberGrapefruitNovembertoJuneLemonsJunetoAugustLimesJunetoSeptemberOrangesDecembertoMarchPecansSeptembertoDecemberWhydowecravecertainfoodsatcertaintimesoftheyearSomeofitiscertainlyduetothefactthatwecanpicksnowpeaswhentheyareavailableinthegardeninMayandwintersquashwhenitisavailablefromOctoberandthroughthewintermonthsasitishandilystoredintherootcellarorspareroom.Venisonstewjustsoundsbestinthefallandwinter.Studieshavelinkedincreasedfoodconsumptiontothemonthsthathaveshorterdaylength.Thecoldertemperaturesanddecreasedhoursofsunshinetendtotriggerourbrainsandbodiesintoneedingmorecaloriesandcarbsandjustheavierfoodsingeneral.Theseheavierfoodsallowustostoreupsomereservesforwinter.AnddoesntalightsaladsoundbestwhenitishotoutsideinthesummerItappearstobeacombinationoftraditionfoodavailabilityandbiologicalcravingofnutrientsthathelptodeterminewhenweeatwhatweeat.Listentoyourbodyandeatfoodswhenyoucravethemkeepinginmindthenaturalseasonthatfoodisavailable. GettingThroughtheSeasonoftheColdandFluFightillnessthisseasonwiththehelpofMotherNature.ByUrsulaWardTherearemanymanyalternativesfromnaturesmedicinechestforhelpingtoavoidcoldsandflu.Youcanusethesealternativestoenjoyaseasonwithoutsuffering.Ifitistoolateforcompleteavoidanceofthecoldandfluthesetricksandsuggestionswillworktoalleviatesymptomsandworkwithyourbodytonaturallyfightagainstcoldsandflu.Puttingsomeofthisknowledgetousemightsaveyoumoneyfromnotmissingworkandcouldsaveyoumiseryofthenastysymptomsfromthecoldandflu.Manyofushavelifestylesthatatonetimeoranothercanleaveussusceptibletotheaffectsofstress.Stressnotgettingenoughsleepandnoteatingaswellasweshouldcanallleadusdowntheroadtofallingvictimtothecoldandflu.WellneverfearbecauseGodand MotherNaturehaveprovideduswithmanytools.EssentialOilsaresomeofthemostancientandeffectiveofthesetools.Essentialoilshavebeenusedmedicinallyforthousandsofyears.Thebiblegivesover200referencestotheiruseandhowtousethem.TodayIamgoingtolimitmyselftohelpingyouthrucoldandfluhowevertheusesarealmostlimitless.KeepinmindthoughthattheoilsthatIwillbesharingwithyouanddiscussinghavetobetherapeuticgrade.DonotexpecttogetthebenefitsIamspeakingoffromanoilthatisperfumegradeorchemicallyadulterated.Oneofthebestlinesofdefenseagainstcoldandfluisofcourseprevention.Youmightbesurprisedhowsimpleeasyandinexpensiveofatoolessentialoilscanbeforkeepingawaycoldsandflu.Almostallessentialoilshavesomeabilitytoenhanceandmodulatetheimmunesystem.Manytherapeuticgradeessentialoilsareanti-bacterialanti-viralandanti-microbial.Foranessentialoiltobeanti-bacterialandanti-virallookforoilswithchemicalconstituentssuchasLimoneneterpineneeugenolaldehydelinalolcitralgeraniolcaryoyphylleneandothers.Youreallydonthavetorelearnchemistrybiologyandsomequantumphysicstousethemthough.Iamgoingtogiveyousomesimplesuggestions.Forpreventionsimplydiffusetheessentialoilsintotheair.YoucanAlmostallessentialoilshavesomeabilitytoenhanceandmodulatetheimmunesystem.Manytherapeuticgradeessentialoilsareanti-bacterialanti-viralandanti-microbial. addsomeoilsintoaspraybottlewithsomewatershakeandspray.Ortherearemanygreatdiffusersonthemarketthatevenhavetimers.Youcanmakeyourbedroomoryourchildsbedroomorevenyourwholehouseasafehavenfromvirusbyputtingtheessentialoilintothediffuserandsendingitintotheair.Thiscanhelpeliminateairbornevirusandbacteriaandatthesametimegiveyouthetherapyaromatically.Asyouinhaleyouwillreceivethebenefitsfromtheoils.Pleaserememberyoushouldjustbarelybeabletosmelltheoiltogetthemosttherapeuticbenefit.IsuggestdiffusingablendcalledThieves.Thievesisablendof40dropsofclove35dropsofLemon20dropsofCinnamon15dropsofEucalyptusand10dropsofRosemary.Youcanuseasmanydropsasyoulikeaslongasyouusethisratio.Youwillhaveanantimicrobialanti-viralandanti-bacterialtoolthatyoucanuseintheairfordiffusingorsimplyapplyafewdropstothebottomsofyourfeet.Frankincenseisapowerfulimmunesystemenhancerandthereforemakesagreatpreventativeessentialoil.Itmaybealittlecostlytodiffusebutyoucansimplyapplyittopicallytoyourfeetspineearsorhead.Ifitistoostrongfindacarrieroil suchascoconutalmondorsesameandaddafewdropstothecarrieroilandplaceanywhereontheskinthatiscomfortabletoyou.Ifyouareusingatherapeuticgradefrankincenseyoumaywanttoaddadroportwotoyourjuiceinthemorning.Whileyouareprotectingyourselffromcoldandfluyouwillbefightingcanceratthesametime.ThisoilisknownastheSwiss-armyknifeofalloils.Itsusesarelimitless.Ontheotherendofthepricespectrumyouwillfindlemonoil.Thisoilwhenusedcanbeanti-mucalytic.Addadroptoyourteaandfeelthethroatclear.Addafewdropstosomelocalrawhoneyandtosomehotfilteredwaterandyouhavearealtreatandtoolforcoldsandflu.Lemonoilishighinantioxidantshelpsmovetoxinsoutofcellsisanti-microbialandanti-cancerousaswellOhthatsrightIwasgoingtokeepittocoldsandfluOkaysoanothergreatessentialoiltoolispeppermint.Thisoilisanotherofthelessexpensiveoilsbutithasliterallyhundredsofuses.Forcoldsandfluwecanusepepperminttobringdownthebodytemperatureifafeverisgettingtoohigh.NowIbelievethatafeverisagreatwaythebodyhastotrytokilltheinvadershoweverattimesfeverscanstartcreepingtoazonethatmightworryparentsandwithinaminuteortwopeppermintonthebottomofthefeetwillbringdownthebodytemperature.Peppermintisalsogreatforrelievingheadachesandmuscleachesalltoocommonsymptomsofthecoldandfluseason.Peppermintisalsoaninvaluabletoolforopeningsinusesandhelpingyoubreatheduringacold.Youcouldalsoaddthistosomehot waterforagreatteawhensick.Itisapreventiveaswell.Thismayverywellbewhypeppermintsticksweretraditionallyusedinthewinterseasonasapreventativeandtonicforcoldsandflu.IalwaysmakesuretohavelavenderoilonhandandEpsomsalts.AfewdropsoflavenderinacupofEpsomsaltsinawarmbathdoeswondersforthebodywhenyouhaveacoldorflu.Youcouldaddacoupledropsofeucalyptustothemixaswell.Lavenderisanadaptogenandisagreatoiltoinducerelaxationbutatthesametimecanboostthebodysenergyifneeded.Thistoolcanbeinvaluableinpreventionhelpingstressedbodiestorelaxandunwindandduringacoldorflutohelpthebodygetmuchneededresttohealitself.Wellthisisjustastartbutconsideryourselfwell-armedifyouhavetheaboveinyourtoolbox.UrsulaWardisacertifiedHolisticPractitionerreflexologistradionicspractitionerreikimasterandMom.Pleaserememberthattheabovesuggestionsarenotintendedinanywaytodiagnoseorprescribe.UrsulaisnotdoctorandonlydoctorscandiagnoseandorprescribeasmandatedbytheFDA.HoweveryoucanfindUrsulaonFacebookandshewouldbehappytohelpansweranyquestions.